Luminal is one of the longest-standing medications used to treat seizures, and it was first introduced in the early 20th century after it was discovered by German scientists. Throughout the 1900s, Luminal was used as a sedative and hypnotic drug. It was a popular prescription medication for insomnia, seizures, and epilepsy until the 1960s when its adverse effects became public knowledge.
Luminal is the brand name for a drug called phenobarbital that produces sedative and nervous system suppressing effects on the human brain. However, it also can be addictive and high doses can be deadly. So deadly, in fact, that it was used by Nazi scientists in early euthanasia practices in 1939.
Luminal is no longer widely prescribed for the treatment of insomnia or other sleep disorders, and its use is relatively rare. However, it’s still used to treat epilepsy and other disorders that cause seizures. In the 1960s, it was mainly replaced by benzodiazepines, a drug with some of the effects but slightly lower toxicity. However, benzodiazepines can be extremely addictive.
Drugs like Luminal are often used recreationally for their ability to cause euphoria and deep relaxation. However, the abuse of powerful depressants can lead to a higher likelihood of developing a chemical dependence and addiction or leading to a deadly overdose. If you have used Luminal, whether it was prescribed to you or not, it’s important to know the signs and symptoms of Luminal addiction. Identifying the signs early can help you avoid some of the most serious consequences of addiction, like the risk of fatal overdose.
Learn more about Luminal addiction and how it can be treated.
What is Luminal?
Luminal, also called phenobarbital, is a psychoactive substance in the barbiturate class of drugs that are used to treat epilepsy and other disorders that cause seizures. It was once widely used for its hypnotic and sedative effects, but it has since become a rare prescription after barbiturates were outmoded by benzodiazepines. Luminal is in the broader category of central nervous system (CNS) depressants along with other barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol. Depressants work by suppressing the central nervous system and limiting excitability. Like other depressants, Luminal can make you feel relaxed, sleepy, lethargic, or depressed.
As a central nervous system depressant, Luminal works in the brain by effecting a neurochemical and its subsequent receptor, called gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or GABA. This naturally occurring chemical is designed to regulate excitability in the central nervous system. When you are feeling excited, angry, irritated, or energized, GABA helps to bring you back down when it’s time to rest and relax.
Some disorders can cause an overexcited nervous system, which can result in anxiety, sleep disorders, muscle spasms, and seizures. Depressants, especially barbiturates, can bind to the GABA receptor and increase the efficiency of the neurochemical, leading to increased effects. Luminal is unique in that it also acts in another way to decrease excitability by releasing more. The result is a feeling of relaxation, sedation, and euphoria.
Barbiturates like Luminal were primarily outmoded in the 1960s because of their adverse effects and because of the increasing popularity of benzodiazepines.
Common side effects include dizziness, muscle twitching, confusion, ataxia, and paradoxical effects like hyperactivity.
The drug is more dangerous among older people. The body’s ability to break down barbiturates can diminish as we age. Older people may experience a more pronounced loss of balance and coordination that can lead to dangerous falls and accidents. They also are at a higher risk for developing chemical dependence.
Signs and Symptoms of Luminal Addiction
Luminal addiction is a chronic disease, but addiction usually follows a few warning signs. Learning to recognize these signs can help you avoid addiction or seek help early enough to avoid some of the most serious consequences. If you’ve been prescribed Luminal, or if you’ve used it recreationally, there are a few warning signs you may notice before
addiction develops. The first sign that drug use is becoming a substance use disorder is an increased tolerance.
Tolerance occurs when your brain and nervous system begins to adapt to the presence of a chemical substance. If you take Luminal consistently for several weeks in a row, then you may notice that your usual dose is becoming less effective. This may happen because your body is trying to balance your brain chemistry, counteracting it with its own natural chemicals. If you increase the dose to make up for the loss in effectiveness, you run the risk of becoming chemically dependent.
Dependence is characterized by strong cravings and withdrawal symptoms when you miss a dose or try to stop using. Luminal withdrawal can cause anxiety, tremors, panic, paranoia, seizures, and a condition called delirium tremens, which is also known as DTs.
If you or someone you know is experiencing withdrawal, it’s important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Speak to a doctor before quitting cold turkey.
How is Luminal Addiction Treated?
Luminal is an addictive drug, but even though addiction is a chronic disease, it can be treated with the right help and therapy options. Luminal is a barbiturate, which can have dangerous effects during withdrawal. If you have been using this or any other barbiturate, it’s important to speak to a doctor before quitting cold turkey because this can cause seizures and other dangerous symptoms.
Because withdrawal can be dangerous, the safest way to begin treatment is by going through medical detox. This is the highest level of addiction treatment and involves 24 hours of care from medical professionals every day for about a week. During detox, your withdrawal symptoms may be treated with medication to alleviate discomfort and avoid serious medical complications. After detox, clinicians can help you by connecting you to the next level of care that’s appropriate for your needs. If you have become addicted to Luminal, you may need more than just a week in detox to facilitate long-lasting recovery.
After detox, if you have ongoing medical concerns that need a high level of care, you may enter an inpatient program or residential treatment services. If you can live on your own without a serious threat of medical or psychological complications or relapse, you may enter an intensive outpatient program or an outpatient program.
In treatment, your specific plan will be individualized to your needs. Through an intake assessment process, you will create a tailored treatment plan with the help of your therapist. It can include a number of therapy options including individual therapy, family therapy, and group therapy. Behavioral therapies are also a common methodology in addiction treatment. They are designed to encourage participation, provide incentives to continue treatment, identify triggers, and for relapse prevention plans.
Luminal Abuse Statistics
- Though they are less common today, 400 deaths involved barbiturates like Luminal in 2013
- 19 million barbiturate prescriptions are still written each year
- About 8% of barbiturates are manufactured illegally.
Start the Road to Recovery Today
If you or a loved one is struggling with a substance use disorder involving Luminal addiction, there is help available to lead you to long-lasting recovery. Speak to an addiction treatment specialist at The Palm Beach Institute to learn more about addiction and how it can be treated.